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Revealing the great Greek Sicilian city

Syracuse was once the Mediterranean centre of Greek civilisation, rivalling Athens as the most important metropolis. Michael Sweet walks the streets of Ortygia to tell the story of what Cicero called 'the greatest Greek city and the most beautiful of them all'

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The island of Ortygia in Syracuse - a Hellenic outpost colonised by the Corinthians in 730 BCE. The Homeric hymn to Delian Apollo says the goddess Leto stopped at Ortygia to give birth to Artemis.

For any philhellene investigating ancient Greek history, Syracuse is a fascinating window into the story of Hellenism in the Mediterranean
20 October 2017

More than any other Sicilian city, Syracuse reflects the ancient Hellenic history of the Mediterranean's largest island. Located on the east coast, Syracuse developed from a Greek colony founded by Corinthians in the 7th century BCE. In the two centuries that followed, the city-state enjoyed a period of expansion and prosperity under the tyrant Dionysius the Elder, who made Syracuse the most powerful of the western Greek colonies. Syracuse, like Sparta and its Peloponnesian allies, was a Dorian city and during the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BCE) it survived a two-year siege by Athenian forces.

The Corinthians established themselves first on the island of Ortygia (the name originates from the Ancient Greek ortyx (όρτυξ) which means 'quail') that lies south of the mainland city. Chosen for its natural harbour and spring water, today the remains of 5th and 6th century BCE temples dedicated to Zeus, Apollo, and Athena draw thousands of visitors.

My journey to Syracuse took place in mid-September. The heat of the Mediterranean summer still warmed the ancient stones of the archaeological sites that bear witness to its history. Like most, I headed first for the centre of Ortygia, also known at the Città Vecchia (Old City), and its showpiece square - the Piazza del Duomo. The piazza - a flamboyant example of baroque architecture from the 17th and 18th centuries - sits on what was once an ancient acropolis, and the Duomo (the Cathedral of Syracuse) was built on the site of the Greek temple of Athena. The temple's Doric columns were integrated into the cathedral's construction in the 7th century AD. The cathedral's medieval builders carved archways into the cella (the temple's sacred central chamber) to transform it into a nave, and between 19 giant columns from the temple's peristyle, they made the outer walls.

Ortygia is sublime to explore - a labyrinth of laneways soaked in the history of almost 3,000 years. Full of cafes - and some of Sicily's best traditional restaurants - for any traveller here delicious sustenance is never more than a few footsteps away. Perhaps the best view of the island (now connected to the mainland by three bridges) is from the sea; between March and October 50-minute boat tours circumnavigate Ortygia offering great views of the historic centre.

MAGNA GRAECIA
Magna Graecia (Megali Hellas) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of southern Italy and Sicily colonised by ancient Greek city-states from the 8th to 5th century BCE. As Magna Graecia's most important metropolis, Syracuse had one of the largest ancient Greek theatres in Europe, and it's still here. Built in the 5th century BCE with a diameter of some 140 metres, today the theatre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. You might think the entrance fee of €20 is steep, but its worth it to explore this archaeological treasure.
Four hundred years before Christ, here was the setting where the works of Aeschylus and other Greek writers of the time were performed. It is believed Aeschylus actually saw one of his plays enacted here. That ancient tradition lives on, with annual performances of Classical Greek drama in May and June. The theatre is just one element of this large and fascinating site. Just to the east is Latomia del Paradiso - a vast limestone quarry from where stone for the ancient city of Syracuse was extracted. Full of catacombs, and today filled with citrus and magnolia trees, this is where 7,000 survivors of the war between Syracuse and Athens in 413 BCE were imprisoned. For any philhellene investigating ancient Greek history, Syracuse is a fascinating window into the story of Hellenism in the Mediterranean.

AROUND SYRACUSE
Southeast Sicily is a land of rocky gorges and home to some of the island's most beautiful towns.
Thirty kilometres due east of Syracuse, the archaeological park of Akrai, near Palazzolo Acreide, contains the ruins of Syracuse's first inland colony, created to defend the overland trading route to other Greek settlements.

Head south on the E35 highway and you will find gems of beaches at Fontane Bianche and San Lorenzo. Go further to Marzamemi to find one of Sicily's prettiest seaside villages. To the east of Avola is an area of Unesco-listed hilltop towns famous for their baroque architecture, including Noto, 40 kilometres south of Syracuse.

Half of Italy's wine production comes from Sicily and the southeast boasts some fine winemakers.

Cantina Marilina, a vineyard in the Noto region established by the Paterno family, specialises in organic wines. Open for tastings year round, the 60-hectare vineyard which uses the Nero Davola and semillon grape produces 70,000 bottles a year. Cantina Marilina, Contrada San Lorenzo, Noto. See cantinamarlinia.com

Winemaker Angelo Paterno and his daughter Federica of Cantina Marilina near Noto. Half of Italy's wine is produced in Sicily.

RESTAURANT PICK
For one of the most authentic Sicilian dining experiences in Ortydgia, head for Osteria Da Mariano, tucked away off the Via Santa Teresa near the island's southernmost tip. Here owners Mariano and Paolo Salafia serve up great dishes like coniglio alla cacciatora (rabbit casserole, €9), penne e spada (penne with swordfish, cherry tomatoes and mint, €11), and spaghetti vongole e bottarga (spaghetti with clams and roe, €12). Great food at great prices. Osteria da Mariano, Vicolo Zuccola 9.

Ortygia is made up of a labyrinth of alleyways hiding delightful cafes and shops, and restaurants offering typical Sicilian cuisine. Right: Syracuse Cathedral was once the Greek Temple of Athena, built in the 5th century BCE. The temple's columns were incorporated into the walls of the cathedral in the 7th century AD.

Italy of course means ice cream and Syracuse has no shortage of great gelaterias. Close to the Ponte Umbertino bridge heading out of Ortygia, Voglia Matta is one of the town's best, serving delicious ice creams and granitas from 8am until midnight. Voglia Matta, Corso Umberto 34.

Too tempting: Voglia Matta gelataria.

ACCOMMODATION
A bed for the night is unsurprisingly more expensive in Ortygia compared to the mainland city. In Syracuse for a late summer weekend I found Corte Sicula B&B an ideal refuge to explore the town. A 20-minute walk from Ortygia, this home away from home run by Melita and Paolo Gradanti has all the creature comforts a family needs, and would be ideal for a romantic getaway or solo travellers.

With comfy mattresses, spacious bedrooms, and well-designed bathrooms the owners haven't skimped on furnishings and the interior design is bright, contemporary and elegant.

Breakfast served in the interior courtyard - with fresh fruit, cakes, pastries, fruit juices and great coffee - is a treat. Paolo couldn't have been more help in advising on anything from where the most authentic Sicilian restaurant can be found to locating the nearest ATM. This is a perfect pied-à-terre for exploring Syracuse's delights and great value. Corte Sicula B&B. Viale Luigi Cadorna 122. See beBCEortesicula.com

A 20-minute walk from Ortygia, the elegant Corte Sicluna B&B makes a perfect base to explore the Syracuse.

Outside Syracuse your best bet is to stay in one of the many Agritourismos (farm stays) dotted around the countryside. Renovated working farms, Agritourismo properties offer bed and breakfast and an evening meal, and are particularly suited to families. See www.agriturismo.it/en

GETTING THERE
Syracuse is a 45-minute drive south of Catania International Airport which is serviced by a host of European airlines including Aegean Airlines, Alitalia and Ryanair.

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