Just watch at worldwide media. Two years after the outbreak of the war, the situation in Ukraine appears to be becoming increasingly problematic.

Despite this, people seem to have short memories. Most forget that Europe was in ruins 79 years ago. Completely devastated. Cities in ruins; infrastructure destroyed, and millions of disposed people were mourning the deaths of millions.

Despite the relatively successful reconstruction, there were always lingering concerns of a new, even more catastrophic war that may begin sooner or later. Unfortunately, historically speaking, this is relatively simple in Europe. The main explanation is that borders have been altered several times in the past.

Almost every nation occupied a portion of today’s neighbouring area for a few years, if not centuries. To comprehend this, check Luxemburg’s medieval borders. This historical trend, combined with the expansion of the military industry, has produced increasingly destructive and complex weaponry, could lead to an apocalyptic event. Not only will the human species be extinct, but so will almost all other forms of life on our planet.

Confirming the Greek philosopher Heraclitus’ famous saying: “War is the father of all and the king of all.”

In this sense, the war in Ukraine could be explained by the fact that two completely distinct ways of thinking, philosophies, and value systems have been crashing into each other in Europe since WWII.

On the one hand, there is the vision of Europe’s so-called pioneers, including Robert Schumann, Konrad Adenauer, Herni Spaak, Achile De Gasperi, and others, and the 1957 Treaty of Rome. The goal was to ensure that Europeans stopped fighting each other, based on the idea of a common market, a customs union, along with various European institutions and a common currency.

Today, the European Parliament is making important decisions about the daily lives of about 450 million people who, united in diversity, have joined the world’s second largest economy, with a GDP of approximately 19.35 trillion dollars in 2024. Democracy, freedom of expression, and human rights are at its core.

People can study, travel, work, and invest in other countries. All major decisions are reached through negotiations among country members. This is the legacy and greatest achievement of European integration. There are no more dead heroes. On the contrary, more than 14 million people educated in another EU country while also learning another language and culture.

On the other hand, there’s the wild fantasy of establishing an empire – a nightmare vision. Where diversity is viewed as a threat. Where history and geography are manipulated by Soviet-style propaganda to legitimate global ambitions. Thousands of young troops were sacrificed. Foreign investors depart from day to day. The best customers for local oil and natural gas, who pay in cash were lost. Where opposition has no place in the political debate. Imagining that Russians and much of Central and Eastern Europe are keen to return to the past, specifically 1991. Is this be possible? I don’t think so.

First, 2024 is not 1991. The world has changed dramatically since then. Second, unlike the post-Soviet propaganda, Ukraine is a nation fighting a stronger foe.

Third, weapons and financial aid from the U.S., allowed the Ukrainians to resist for the past two years. Fourth, Europeans have begun to talk about a prewar generation, boosting the defense industry in preparation for war, and sending European troops to Ukraine.

After all, from the beginning, European integration has always achieved by overcoming major crises. And this is the new one. A new world order seems ready to emerge, and the fate of Europe will once again be on the line, for better or worse.


Dr George Tassiopoulos is a Greek French political scientist, with a doctorate in political science from the University of East Paris. He was born in Athens, and has lived in France for the past 22 years where he teaches geopolitics in a business school in Paris.